Construction and Demolition materials regularly contain cumbersome, substantial materials, for example:
The origination of Construction and Demolition (C&D) materials occurs when either the existing civil engineering structures and new building are demolished (or renovated) or when the new civil engineering structures and building are constructed. These structures include projects such as dams, bridges, streets, piers, public work projects and utility plants.
The major contributors to the rapid rise of the construction industry have been the recent increase in the IT Sector and industrialization, along with the constant introduction of new infrastructural projects.
The recent increase in the IT Sector and industrialization, coupled with the constant introduction of new infrastructural projects has resulted in the rapid rise of the construction industry. This, in turn, has led to a drastic demand for construction materials which eventually results in colossal amounts of construction waste.
According to the statistics provided by the Department of Science and Technology, the construction and demolition waste generated is about 530 million tonnes on a yearly basis which leads to huge financial setbacks to builders, contractors, regional authorities and eventually to the country.
The primary cause of this is that the production of waste due to the demolition of structures is more than the wastage which occurs during the construction of structures. Apart from the obvious financial damage, improper waste management of construction and demolition materials also leads to massive air pollution levels.
In the March 2016, in order to reduce the pollution in big cities such as Delhi, the Centre come across with a set of rules that were aimed to manage the demolition and construction waste by creating a bar on the dumping of such wastes along the drains and roadside. This move was aimed to cut down the pollution in the big cities by 20 percent.
However, a certain set of rules brought by the Environment Ministry in 2016 made their agenda towards environment even more clear. The Construction and Demolition (C&D) rules made it compulsory for the local authorities to undertake the C&D waste plants in several cities of India. The timeline to follow was given as the cities which have the population in millions should commission it within 18 months, the cities falling under the population bracket of 5-10 lakhs should look out for it within 2 years and cities with population less than 5 lakhs should commission situation within 3 years.
The rules also made it obligatory for large builders or waste generators to put forward proper waste management plans in addition to their building plans. Those who failed to deposit these required documents ended up facing ‘non-grant’ permission for the building.
It is imperative to understand that the earlier methods used for waste disposal of construction and demolition materials were highly unscientific in their very nature due to poor overall management and a tendency to consider the waste generated in construction facilities as ‘rubbish’. Without any set rules, waste would be dumped in open spaces, drains, rivers, forest areas, landfills and on the roadside.
However, this came out to be on contrary to the latest philosophy of the waste management which identifies the waste generated as one of the potential resources. This ideology is based on the concept principle concept of ‘Recover, Recycle and Reuse’. If the waste that is generated is disposed and managed properly, then it can be used to make pipes and tiles. The idea behind this concept was to create a value for the waste produced hence, stepping a stone ahead to attain the goals for Sustainable Development.
Reusing and Recycling the materials and buildings can produce certain environmental as well as economic benefits. It not only contributes to the local economy, but conserves both resources and energy, and also promotes the historic preservation.
The Construction, Remodeling, and Demolition (CR&D) waste are generated by all the construction-related activities, such as land clearing, remodeling, new construction, and demolition. It’s interesting to know that the amount of CR&D material disposed of in the landfill is just slightly more than that of generated in Portland.
Which makes more than the 25% of Portland’s landfill space to be covered by the demolition and construction debris, when half of this amount could have been easily recycled or reused.